– Primary: 22% to 27% representing between 751,000 and 921,000 children

– Lower secondary: 30% to 40% representing between 741,000 and 1 million children

– Upper secondary: more than 60%, or nearly 1.4 million adolescents

The issues related to late entry, high school re-sits and dropouts at the primary level are among the most important problems of the Malagasy education system. Children enrolled in primary school are at greater risk of dropping out, where they have only a 33% chance of reaching the final grade. However, once students reach lower secondary school, they have a 73% chance of reaching the last grade, and those who reach upper secondary school have an 87% chance of reaching the last grade.

The proportions of out-of-school boys remain higher than those of girls in the 5-14 age groups, but girls are more likely to be out of school once they are older than 15. Across all dimensions of exclusion, out-of-school children are more likely to come from the poorest households, to be orphans, to have disabilities, and to live in rural areas or in certain regions in the south and southwest of the country.

Several demand and supply factors may explain school exclusion. At the household level, economic difficulties in the household, the low perception of the direct benefits of education combined with the need for labor in agricultural activities or herding, particularly for boys, explain a large part of the phenomenon of children not attending school. Early marriages, on the other hand, are a source of school dropout for young girls. As for schools, the cost of education, the distance from the school and the existence of incomplete schools with a discontinuity in educational offerings, the low qualification of teachers, and the existence of community teachers paid by parents have a significant influence on non-enrollment and dropout.

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